Frequently asked Questions

June 28, 2020

Q. What are AQUAOX solutions?

A. AQUAOX solutions are produced by combining two simple ingredients, purified water and Sodium Chloride (NaCl) that are processed by two Electrochemical Activation generators to produce three types of solutions.

AQUAOX Cleaning Solutions (AX-112, AX-122):

Reducing Water (cleaner) is a non-toxic, non-hazardous, chlorine-free cleaning solution that does not produce fumes or contain hazardous “butyl” solvents or other potentially dangerous substances such as phosphates or ammonia. It removes grease, dirt and oil deposits from virtually all surfaces, cleans without scrubbing and does not leave a residue, such as that with chemicals.

AQUAOX Disinfecting Solutions (AX-275, AX-525):

Oxidizing Water (disinfectant/sanitizer) is produced at a near neutral pH where the predominant antimicrobial agent is Hypochlorous Acid (HOCl), an efficient and efficacious species of chlorine that kills bacteria, fungi, molds, viruses, and spores. It is particularly effective because it can achieve a degree of disinfection that cannot be achieved with traditional chemicals while being biodegradable, non-toxic, non-corrosive and absent of residue.

AQUAOXWater Treatment solutions (AX-5000)

Mixed Oxidant Water contains a mixture of chlorine-oxygen compounds which kill harmful pathogens in water at a very fast rate. Users dilute the HOCL/NaOCL solution with water to get the desired ppm for a specific task or dose it into a water distribution system for disinfecting and removal of biofilm.

Q. How does HOCl kill? … compare with bleach?

A. Nature gives a negative charge to the cell wall of a pathogenic microorganism. The negative charge of the pathogenic microorganism’s cell wall repulses the negative charge of the hypochlorite ions (OCL-) in bleach making it a weak disinfectant.

The AQUAOX neutral Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) molecule easily penetrates the cell wall, making it a very effective disinfectant. HOCl effectively penetrates slime layers, cell walls and protective layers of microorganisms.  Microorganisms quickly die or are made non-functional by reproductive failure.  HOCl is 80-100 times more effective and exceeds the disinfecting properties of bleach by up to 300 times.

Q. Is HOCl safe for humans, animals and environment?

A. Yes,  HOCl is non-toxic, non-corrosive, biodegradable, environmentally friendly and absent of residue.

Q. Is HOCL effective against Covid-19?

A. Yes, CDC recommends the use of >200ppm free available chlorine.

Q. What (other) viruses are killed by exposure to HOCL?

A. There are multiple independent laboratory data that confirm efficacy against enveloped and non-enveloped viruses E.g. Aquaox tested its HOCL solutions at a 225ppm strength and these tests confirm 99.9999% efficacy in 30 seconds against e.g.: Coronavirus, Adenovirus, Hepatitus virus, bovine viral virus, polio virus, herpes virus and HIV.

Q. What is kill-time of HOCL against viruses?

A. Most viruses are fully destroyed within 5 to 60 seconds contact time under clean conditions.

Q. Is HOCL is effective against bacteria?

A. Yes, there are multiple independent laboratory data that confirm efficacy against all kinds of bacteria. (a really long list)

Q.What bacteria are killed by exposure to HOCL?

A. Independent test data confirm that HOCL is effective against gram-negative, gram-positive as well aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

Q. What is kill-time of HOCL against bacteria?

A. Most bacteria are fully destroyed within 5 to 60 seconds contact time under clean conditions.

Q. Is HOCL effective against fungi?

A. Yes, there are multiple independent laboratory data that confirm efficacy against . (another long list)

Q. What fungi is killed by HOCL exposure?

A. Most fungi are fully destroyed within 5 to 60 seconds contact time under clean conditions.

Q. Is HOCL is effective against spores?

A. Yes, independent test data confirm that HOCL is effective against e.g. C.Diff and Candida Aurus within 5 to 10 minutes contact time.

 Q. Are HOCL solutions FDA approved?

A. FDA approved several HOCL solutions for topical (skin) usage, for direct food contact as well for sanitizing food contact surfaces. FDA requires HOCL producers to submit a formulation for either a 510k device approval or submit formulation with FDA for obtaining a Food Contact Notice (FCN)

Q. Are Aquaox solutions FDA approved?

No, simply as Aquaox has not applied for FCN. Aquaox has submitted and obtained a 510k device application, but this approval is exclusively licensed to Innovacyn Inc., that markets AX-250 formulation under one or more of its brand names.

Q. Is use of HOCL allowed by USDA?

A. HOCL is permitted for usage in food preparation, direct food contact as well for sanitizing food contact surfaces. USDA provides guidelines for ppm-level not to exceed.

Q. Is use of Aquaox solutions allowed by USDA?

A. USDA permits usage of HOCL, but puts limits on concentration

Q. Is usage of HOCL recommended by CDC?

A.  CDC recommends the use of sodium hypochlorites with >200ppm for disinfecting hard (non-porous) services as well aerosols.

Q. Is HOCL approved by EPA?

A. EPA does not approve nor endorse any disinfectant or active ingredient. EPA certifies efficacy of pesticides (disinfectants, sanitizers) for use on hard (non-porous) surfaces.

Q. Are AQUAOX solutions EPA certified?

A. AQUAOX has (2) anti-microbial solutions that are registered with the EPA as hospital grade, broad spectrum hard surface disinfectants. AX Disinfectant 275 (AX-275) and AX Disinfectant 525 (AX-525)

Q. What does it mean that AX-275 and AX-525 are both EPA certified Hospital-Grade Broad-Spectrum disinfectants?

A. This means that efficacy of Aquaox disinfectants against target organisms have been verified by EPA.

Q. What is the active ingredient(s) in AX-275 or AX-525?

A. The only active ingredient in AX-275 and AX-525 is Hypochlorous Acid (HOCL) generated by electrolysis of a dilute sodium chloride solution.

Q. What is the difference between AX-275 and AX-525?

A. AX-275 contains 248 to 302ppm HOCL and AX-525 contains 477-577ppm HOCL, measured as Free Available Chlorine (FAC).

Q. What is the pH of AX-275 or AX-525?

A. The pH of both AX-275 and Ax-525 is near neutral; between. 6.3 to 7.3

Q. How many parts per million Free Available Chlorine is in AX-275 or AX-525?

A. AX-275 contains 275 ± 10% ppm HOCL. AX-525 contains 525 ± 10% ppm HOCL.

Q. When do I us AX-275 and when do I use AX-525?

A. We recommend usage of AX-525 in the presence of blood or bodily liquids. We recommend AX-525 on surfaces that have not been pre-cleaned and thus contain a high level on contaminants (organic matter).

Q. How is AX-275 or AX-525 supplied?

A. Both AX-275 or AX-525 solutions can be supplied in: 2,3.5,4,8,16,24 or 32oz bottles. Both AX-275 or AX-525 solutions can be supplied in 1, 5, 15,30,55,275 or 330 gallon containers.

Q. What is the shelf-life of AX-275 or AX-525?

A. The shelflife is not absolute. The shelflife of AX-275 and AX-525 is determined by the lower concentration level as set by the EPA. Thus, as long as AX-275 contains >248ppm FAC, AX-275 is effective as a Hospital Grade Broad Spectrum disinfectant. As long as the AX-525 contain >477ppm FAC, AX-525 is effective as a Hospital Grade Broad Spectrum disinfectant. AX-275 and AX-525 shelflife is minimal 30 days from production.

Q. What do I use to measure PPM of AX-275 or AX-525?

A. Use 0-300ppm chlorine test strips for AX-275. Use 0-1000ppm chlorine test strips for AX-525.

Q. Where do I purchase these Chlorine strips?

A. Purchase with chlorine test strip manufacturer or purchase from Aquaox website

Q. How do I apply AX-275 or AX-525 on surfaces?

A. Wipe, spray or dip Aquaox Disinfectant on a surface with a cloth, wipe, mop, sponge, sprayer or spray applicator. Allow surfaces to air-dry.

Q. Do I need to dilute AX-275 or AX-525?

A. AX-275 and AX-525 are Ready-To-Use disinfectants. No dilution.

Q. Can I fill and use re-fillable spray bottles with AX-275 or AX-525?

A. It is permitted to spray-bottles, sprayers or spray applicators.

Q. For how long are these spray bottles filled with AX-275 or AX-525 effective? What is the shelf-life?

A. Remove AX-275 or AX-525 at or over 1-week-old from the bottle or storage tank. 1 week.

Q. How do I best store AX-275 or AX-525?

A. Store in a closed plastic container in a cool area away from direct sunlight.

Q. Can I spray and let air-dry AX-275 and AX-525?

A. Spray cleaned surfaces and let air-dry. No wiping needed.

Q. Do I need an electrostatic sprayer to disinfect surfaces?

A. No, not at all. An electrostatic sprayer is more efficiently in covering surfaces, but has no effect on efficacy.

Q. How long do I spray surfaces? How frequent?

A. Spray at 1.4-4ft distance from target area. Spray daily or weekly as needed.

Q. How many square feet surface does 1-gallon AX-275 or AX-525 disinfect?

A. Please, refer to instructions of (electrostatic) sprayer, as output of sprayers may vary between 3-9oz/minute.

Q. How long does the surface need to be wet?

A. Sprayed surfaces must remain wet for 10 minutes.

Q. What PPE is required when spraying AX-275 or AX-525?

A. Only precautionary statement is to avoid contact with eyes, so wear safety glasses. Wash hands with soap and water after handling and before eating.

Q. How long one has to wait before it is safe to enter the (sprayed) area?

A. Area can be entered immediately.

Q. Can I spray AX-275 or AX-525 of fabrics, such as upholstery and curtains?

A. Yes, HOCL will not harm surfaces. When applying to a large non-porous surface, allow an overlap of 50% when spraying from top to bottom using a 3ft side-by-side motion.

Q. Can I spray AX-275 or AX-525 on toys, instruments, tools and equipment?

A. Yes, HOCL will not harm surfaces. Will not harm titanium coated, medical grade stainless steel. AX-275 and Ax-525 can be used to decontaminate critical devices prior to sterilization.

Q. Can I spray AX-275 or AX-525 on all materials or surfaces? Are there materials to be avoided?

A. HOCL can be used on all materials. Avoid Brass, Copper, Silver and Gold.

Q. Is AX-275 or AX-525 corrosive?

A. No, unless it reacts with quaternary ammonium, so do not use quaternary ammonium cleaners to pre-clean surfaces.

Q. Can I use AX-275 or AX-525 in a fogger or humidifier?

A Yes, refer to instructions of fogger or humidifier

Q. Is AX-275 or AX-525 toxic or cytotoxic?

A. No, Independent laboratory data confirms biocompatibility of HOCL

Q. Does AX-275 or AX-525 cause allergic and/or asthmatic reactions?

A. No, independent laboratory data confirm biocompatibility of HOCL

Q. The label says AX-275 or AX-525 is a cleaner and disinfectant in one. Does this mean that surfaces do not need to be pre-cleaned?

A. No, this means that efficacy is warranted under dirty circumstances, so that the solution can overcome the bioload (contaminants) on the surfaces when surface remain wet for 10 minutes.

Q. Can I use any cleaner to preclean surfaces?

A. No, do not use quaternary ammonium cleaners and hydrogen peroxide.

Q. Can I use (Clorox, Lysol, Cavi) wipes to pre-clean surfaces?

A. Yes, as these wipes are all bleach wipes, which active ingredient is free available chlorine.

Q. What cleaner is recommended to wipe surfaces clean prior to applying AX-275 or AX-525 disinfectant?

A. AX-112 is recommended to pre-clean all surfaces. A 1:10-1:20 dilution of AX-122 is also recommended.

Q. What is difference between AX-112 and AX-122 cleaner?

A. AX-112 contains ~170ppm Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH). AX-122 contains ~3400ppm Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH). AX-122 is 20 time more concentrated that Ax-112.

Q. What is shelf life of AX-112 or AX-122?

A. At least 2 years from production date.

Q. Can I use AX-112 or AX-122 on any surface?

A. AX-112 can be used on any surface. AX-122 MUST be diluted 1:10-1:20 to be used on any surface

Q. What is the active ingredient(s) of AX-112 and AX-122?

A. Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) generated from electrolyses of a sodium chloride solution.

Q. What is the pH of AX-112 or AX-122?

A. PH of Ax-112 is 11-12. PH of AX-122 is 12-13

Q. How do I apply AX-112 or AX-122 on surfaces?

A. Wipe, spray, immerse on surfaces with cloth, mop, wipe, sponge or sprayer.

Q. Do I need to dilute AX-112 or AX-122?

A. AX-112 is a ready-to-use multipurpose cleaner; no dilution needed. AX-122 MUST be diluted 1:10-1:20

Q. Can I fill and use re-fillable spray bottles with AX-112 or AX-122?

A. Yes, permitted.

Q. For how long are these spray bottles filled with AX-112 or AX-122 effective? What is the shelf-life?

A. For at least a year.

Q. How do I best store AX-122 or AX-122?

A. Store in a closed plastic container in a cool area away from direct sunlight.

Q. Can I spray and let air-dry AX-112 and AX-122?

A. Yes, but this make no sense as both cleaners emulsify dirt and debris that then need to wiped off the surface using a greenspeed microfiber cloth or mop.

Q. What PPE is required when using applying AX-112 or AX-122?

A. Only precautionary statement is to avoid contact with eyes, so wear safety glasses. Wash hands with soap and water after handling and before eating.

Q. Do I need to apply AX-112 or AX-122 on microfiber cloth or can I use paper, cotton towels or wipes?

A. You can use paper, cotton towels or wipes. However, the absorbency and adherence of a microfiber cloth is superior. Thus removing dirt and debris far more effectively that paper or cotton towels or even wipes that ‘smear’ the surface.



June 12, 2020

Hypochlorous acid is a weak, highly unstable acid which can only exist in a solution.[1]  Aquaox LLC produces hypochlorous acid by electrolysis of a dilute salt solution passing through an electrolytic cell.   At an acidic to neutral pH, the predominant chemical species is hypochlorous acid (HOCl). [2]  Hypochlorous acid has demonstrated antimicrobial activity against numerous bacterial, viral and fungal pathogens, including antibiotic-resistant strains.[3]

Hypochlorous acid has a history of safe use as a disinfectant in numerous applications including household, hospital, food preparation, industrial and pharmaceutical applications.  Hypochlorous acid is approved by the FDA for direct patient tissue contact as a wound care agent. It has also been used in root canal therapy.[4]

Aquaox LLC manufactures a number of electrochemically generated hypochlorous acid products at concentrations up to 0.0525% (525 ppm free available chlorine) for multiple uses. Some of our clients, we supply bottled solutions as one-step cleaners and disinfectants for general cleaning and disinfecting hard, non-porous surfaces.[5]  These products can be applied using a mop/bucket, a trigger spray bottle or a pressurized spray system. Some of our clients choose to have Aquaox LLC install a device within their facility to produce on-site solution for the same. Some of our clients, obtained FDA approval for bottling Hypochlorous acid solutions used for topical applications. Some of our clients use bottled or on-site generated Hypochlorous acid for water treatment or in food preparation.

This review was conducted to evaluate the risk of daily applying Hypochlorous acid on skin, for e.g. disinfecting people by spraying them when entering buildings.

Aquaox LLC has evaluated AQUAOX Disinfectant 275/525, its most concentrated hypochlorous acid product, in a series of preclinical toxicology studies which were conducted in compliance with the ISO 10993 Standards.  Testing included the evaluation of cytotoxicity, acute oral toxicity, repeat dose (28 day) dermal toxicity, dermal sensitization, acute inhalation toxicity as well as skin and eye irritation.

The results of these studies confirmed that AQUAOX Disinfectant 275/525, and by extrapolation all AQUAOX Disinfectant products marketed at hypochlorous acid concentrations less than 0.0525% are not cytotoxic, nor do they demonstrate signs of acute systemic toxicity or irritation following oral or inhalation exposure. AQUAOX Disinfectant 275/525 is not a dermal sensitizer nor is it a skin or eye irritant.  It failed to exhibit any signs of local or systemic toxicity following 28 days of repeated dermal administration to intact and abraded skin.[6]

The preclinical testing described above has demonstrated that AQUAOX Disinfectant 275/525, and by extrapolation all AQUAOX Disinfectant products marketed at hypochlorous concentrations less than 525 ppm are not irritants following inhalation, dermal or ocular exposure.  Based on these findings AQUAOX Disinfectant products are not considered to represent a risk to the health of applicators, patients or other potentially exposed individuals by daily skin contact.

[1] National Center for Biotechnology Information―NCBI (2015) Hypochlorous Acid, PubChem 867 Compound Database; CID=24341, 868 (accessed Aug. 9, 2015).

[2] Sansebastiano, G. et al. Page 262 in Food Safety: A Practical and Case Study Approach (Ed: R. J. Marshall) 2006, Springer Science & Business Media, Berlin.

[3] Wang TX, Kelly MD, Cooper JN, Beckwith RC, Margerum DW. Equilibrium, kinetic, and UV-spectral characteristics of aqueous bromine chloride, bromine, and chlorine species. Inorg Chem. 1994; 33:5872– 5878.

[4] European Union Risk Assessment Report, Sodium Hypochlorite, CAS No: 7681-52-9, EINECS No: 231-668-3, Final Report, November 2007.


[6] AQUAOX LLC., Technical Summary – Aquaox On-Site Generated Disinfectants. /2017/04/ Technical-Summary_On-site_Disinfectants_vf.pdf

Aerosol Disinfection Capacity of Slightly Acidic Hypochlorous Acid Water Towards Newcastle Disease Virus in the Air: An In Vivo Experiment

June 12, 2020


Existence of bioaerosol contaminants in farms and outbreaks of some infectious organisms with the ability of transmission by air increase the need for enhancement of biosecurity, especially for the application of aerosol disinfectants. Here we selected slightly acidic hypochlorous acid water (SAHW) as a candidate and evaluated its virucidal efficacy toward a virus in the air. Three-day-old conventional chicks were challenged with 25 doses of Newcastle disease live vaccine (B1 strain) by spray with nebulizer (particle size ❤ μm in diameter), while at the same time reverse osmosis water as the control and SAHW containing 50 or 100 parts per million (ppm) free available chlorine in pH 6 were sprayed on the treated chicks with other nebulizers. Exposed chicks were kept in separated cages in an isolator and observed for clinical signs. Oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from 2 to 5 days postexposure from each chick, and then the samples were titrated with primary chicken kidney cells to detect the virus. Cytopathic effects were observed, and a hemagglutination test was performed to confirm the result at 5 days postinoculation. Clinical signs (sneezing) were recorded, and the virus was isolated from the control and 50 ppm treatment groups, while no clinical signs were observed in and no virus was isolated from the 100 ppm treatment group. The virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain Sato, too, was immediately inactivated by SAHW containing 50 ppm chlorine in the aqueous phase. These data suggest that SAHW containing 100 ppm chlorine can be used for aerosol disinfection of NDV in farms.

Keywords: Newcastle disease virus; aerosol disinfectant; biosecurity; spray; virus inactivation.

Hakimullah Hakim  1   2 Chanathip Thammakarn  1   2 Atsushi Suguro  1 Yuki Ishida  1 Katsuhiro Nakajima  1 Minori Kitazawa  1 Kazuaki Takehara  1   2


New Approaches to Infection Control

June 1, 2020

By Robert Elsenpeter

Bob Dylan was 100 percent right – The Times They Are a-Chaingin’, and dentists must be able to change with those times.

The COVID-19 pandemic forced dental practices to re-think the ways in which they approach infection control. While traditional methods were, certainly, effective means of controlling infection transmission, when the doors do finally reopen on a regular basis, practices are likely going to want new, more effective, ways to keep themselves, and patients, safe. If anything positive can be taken from the pandemic, it’s that new approaches to infection control are receiving closer attention.


Aquaox offers a unique product for surface disinfection. Their solutions utilize electrolysis-treated salt brine to create two types of solutions. The main component of the first is hypochlorous acid.

“That’s a chemical in our bodies that we generate to ward off any types of infections when we get cut,” Mark Nagano, Aquaox Vice President Operations says. “It’s generated by white blood cells, and they use hypochlorous acid to fight any pathogen trying to invade into our body. Hypochlorous acid is the main ingredient in bleach that does all the killing, but ours is up to 300 times stronger than bleach.”

Their other solution is a high-alkaline water that emulsifies grease and oil very quickly.

“It does have antimicrobial properties, but both solutions are considered all-natural,” Nagano says. “Our solutions are non-toxic, non-corrosive. As you can imagine, because we only use salt and water to make these solutions, we are actually considered organic.”

Aquaox’s solutions are registered with the EPA as a hospital-grade, broad spectrum disinfectant. They recently were approved in Canada to treat COVID-19. They are waiting for a similar US approval.

“We’re just waiting for the paperwork to go through,” Nagano says, “but we know we’re going to get it.”

Rather than just spraying the solutions on specific surfaces, Aquaox utilizes electrostatic spraying to treat an entire room. Nagano compares electrostatic spring to rubbing a balloon on someone’s hair and then hair standing up.

“Electrostatic spraying puts a charge on to the product coming out,” Nagano says. “That charge is 70 times greater than gravity. When it comes out, that droplet won’t just fall to the ground. That droplet has a positive charge on it and everything, inherently, has a negative charge, so it adheres to everything – the ceiling, the wall, the table top, under the table, the legs. We are getting total room coverage with our disinfectant.”

It is also non-corrosive.

“You can spray the whole room and walk away,” Nagano says. “With regular disinfectants, like bleach, you can’t do that. If you did that for a week, everything in that room would start being corroded, not to mention you can’t breathe it. Using our products, dentists can extend the life of their equipment and their furniture.”


In addition to new technologies, now’s a good time to revisit the efficacy of some existing practices, like air treatment.

“Doctors always use high volume evacuation, because they have an assistant to manage that for them,” infection prevention speaker, author, and consultant Mary Govoni says. “The hygienists, on the other hand, especially when they’re using an ultrasonic scaler, don’t necessarily have someone or some way to manage that, so they use low-volume suction or the saliva ejector. There are lots of devices now that are available that don’t require the hygienist to hold onto them while they’re using their ultrasonic scaler. They can be placed in the mouth and secured. There are a number of them on the market, and as long as they work with the high-volume suction, then that alleviates again about 90 percent of that aerosol. And then, of course, there’s the old tried-and-true dental dam. But they are not very popular, because it’s a little time consuming to apply it. It doesn’t work with every procedure, but nonetheless, it’s a great way to control air assault.”

Best practices

Given the tumultuous times, doctors may be hesitant to invest in any new technologies – at least not yet.

“The difficulty that I see right now for dentists is that we don’t have any firm guidance either from the CDC or from OSHA that says what is going to be required, going forward,” Govoni says. “What we have in place is interim guidance. That is geared toward treating emergency patients only. The American Dental Association has really been pushing CDC to update their interim guidance. I’m guessing they’ve done the same thing with, with OSHA, but that’s the struggle.”

Another concern is to what extent, and for how long, stepped-up efforts will be necessary.

“We may not have to do extra things forever,” Govoni observes. “Once the pandemic has died down, maybe we will see that we won’t see that there’s such a great threat. Maybe we don’t have to wear N95 masks all the time, or maybe we don’t have to worry the aerosols, but I think there are better ways. I think mitigating the aerosol production in the first place so that we don’t have the contaminants in the air.”

Are we just worried about COVID-19 or is there another bogeyman hiding under the bed for whom we have to prepare?

“We know that, in laboratory settings, aerosols can stay in the environment for up to three hours,” Govoni says. “So, it’s not just about COVID, it’s about colds, flu possible tuberculosis infections. And what about when we’re removing amalgam restorations and the potential for mercury to be separated out from that amalgam and potentially aerosolized? So, I think what COVID has done is really shined a very bright light on the issue of aerosols in dentistry, in general. As we keep hearing from some of the public health officials, there will be another Coronavirus out there or a pandemic influenza out there. If we start looking at what we can use long-term, in terms of containing or mitigating the aerosols, then we’re going to make a healthier environment in this era and planning for the future. It’s not just about COVID, it’s about what comes next, which is a scary thought.”

Dentists would be wise to heed Bob Dylan’s advice and to be able to change with these times, maybe even embracing new technologies.

HOCL is synonymous with infection control

May 29, 2020


Compared to hypochlorite ions (OCL-), hypochlorous acid (HOCL) kills microorganisms faster and is 50-100 times more effective.

HOCL is the effective disinfection agent

Rather than think of the 5.25% chemical concentration of bleach, think of it as 94.75% water.  When diluted, bleach becomes 99.998% water with only 0.002% (20 ppm) chemical concentration.

AX-525 with 0.0525% HOCL has 525 ppm HOCL

AX-275 with 0.0275% HOCL has 275 ppm HOCL

BLEACH with <0.0002% HOCL has <20 ppm HOCL

The disinfecting level of hypochlorous acid (HOCL) in AquaoxTM AX-275 “electrolyzed water” -Øis capable of killing bacteria (cidal activity) 50 to 100 times that of household bleach –Øaddresses the growing resistance to chemical terminal cleaning agents -Øis an efficient disinfecting adjunct to standard terminal cleaning … and -Øoptimizes infection prevention in hospital environments.

As a disinfectant, hypochlorous acid (HOCL), is much stronger and more reactive than hypochlorite ions (OCL-) because hypochlorous acid (HOCL) splits into hydrochloric acid (HCl) and an oxygen atom – also a powerful disinfectant.

The electrically neutral hypochlorous acid (HOCL) ion easily penetrates pathogenic microorganism cell walls, slime layers and other microorganism protective layers to make the cells die or suffer from reproductive failures.

Conversely, the pathogenic microorganism cell wall is negatively charged by nature … and thus repulses negativelycharged hypochlorite ions (OCL-).

Hypochlorous Acid

Guarantees Optimal Disinfection

At 6.5 pH, AQUAOX™ produces hypochlorous acid (HOCL) that is 90% Free Available Chlorine (FAC) and only 10% hypochlorite ion (OCL-), which does not gas off in the form of chlorine (CL2).

Hypochlorous acid (HOCL) combines with the oxidizing power of oxygen to optimize the disinfection properties of chlorine (CL2) in water (H2O).

Compressed air is used to electrostatically spray/ disperse micro-droplets of HOCL (and Oxygen) at precisely the optimum pH level for disinfection (6.0-6.5).

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When comparing the disinfecting power of bleach to Aquaox AX-275 (275 ppm HOCL), the Aquaox solution is far more effective than undiluted bleach (12 pH), which has 52,500-60,000 ppm, but <20 ppm (0.0002% HOCL) of Free Available Chlorine (FAC) … or no disinfecting power.

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FACT:  To improve cleaning and disinfecting capability, Aquaox’s proprietary Electrochemical Activated Water generation system introduces nanobubbles into the electrolyzed solution to greatly increase bioactivity, area-to-volume surface ratio and decrease the viscosity and surface tension.  Nanobubbles further explain why Aquaox electrolyzed solutions are actually 80-300 times more effective than 200 ppm diluted bleach.

When bottled, Aquaox nanobubbles stay submerged, with no off-gassing, for at least 24 months.

Bleach is toxic, corrosive, irritates skin/eyes/respiratory, destroys metal, burns holes in and discolors clothing.

Aquaox solutions do none of these.

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THE STATEMENT:  The general public fears hospitalization and contracting superbugs.  It is completely reasonable to assure room disinfection to the best of our current technological availabilities.

THE QUESTION:  Do you want bleach (or even ‘green’ chemicals) in your face … or do you prefer odorless, safe and healthy Aquaox solutions that are highly effective disinfecting solutions and revert to ordinary water for safe discharge into the environment?

Given the choice, would your employees, customers, members, patients, students, athletes choose to have chemicals in their environment?  The socially conscious decision is yours.

Adding Aquaox’s proprietary ADJUNCT disinfecting step within the Hospital protocol is effective, cost-efficient, quick, safe and actually reduces training time, labor hours and room turnover time for (all) patient care rooms . . . with the significant bonus of substantially improving patient satisfaction scores.

Be ahead of the curve; adopt the Aquaox Infection Control SystemTM to move your organization into a competitive advantage.

+1. 800. 790.7520 /

Does AQUAOX Protect Against Coronavirus?

May 18, 2020

AbsolutelyAQUAOX kills Coronavirus

AQUAOX demonstrates a 99.994% reduction in the stock virus titer as compared to the titer of the corresponding virus control. The log reduction in viral titer was 4.25 log10”

Since 2014, AQUOAX cleaning and sanitizing solutions have been used by hospitals to “basically eliminate cross contamination and hospital acquired infections (HAI) from superbugs such as MRSA, C-Diff and VRE.”

When adhering to our protocol, the AQUOAX solution a better, cleaner, safer way to protect against Coronavirus exposure than using chemicals and/or alcohol-based hand-sanitizers.

Further, AQUOAX Infection Control Systems delivers better coverage in less time when using electrostatic sprayers* to kill ‘superbugs’, etc.  *Aquaox can be sprayed, misted, fogged or otherwise applied on surfaces

AQUOAX provides a cleaning/disinfection protocol as well as an elevated (in-the-air) protection system … [noting that applicators are presently in short supply, as well].


Aquaox’ EPA-registered broad-spectrum disinfectant AX-275 is effective against H1N1 virus.

See:  EPA-registration 93392-1 for AX-275 disinfectant

Aquaox’ EPA-registered broad-spectrum disinfectant AX-525 is effective against HIV virus and H1N1 virus.

See:  EPA-registration 93392-2 for AX-525

Aquaox on-site generated Hypochlorous Acid solutions are effective against all viruses and when used as directed can be effective against a host of germs in as little as 30 seconds.


This an official acceptation of Aquaox in Canada, since April 29th 2020

To order online Aquaox (bottled) HOCL solutions, , visit our website:

Then contact us for further guidance regarding execution of health/safety protocols for correct use of solutions and applicators.

+1 800.790.7520 /



‘White Paper’ … Dental Clinic Advisory (you may share this perspective with your colleagues)

May 18, 2020


We now understand the difficulties and risks of reopening dental clinics, having listened and spoken to several of your colleagues to hear their reopening plans and the requirements they must follow to comply with updated Covid-19 guidelines.

For 30 years, I have been working in the field of Electrolyzed Water – an engineered water that is generated solely by electrolysis of water and salt – and safely returns to water and salt when its cleaning/sanitizing job is complete.  Our company, AQUAOXTM, is a manufacturer of such generating equipment as well as a producer/distributor of EPA-certified disinfectants in containers.


HOCL (Hypochlorous Acid) is immediately effective and leaves no residue.  HOCL has many clear benefits, such as safety and biodegradability.  HOCL is produced by the human body.  However, HOCL has some disadvantages, as it reacts quickly with organic matter and its shelf life is rapidly compromised by UV-light.  In a way, these disadvantages are also advantages, as these properties explain why HOCL is biodegradable, sustainable and safe … as it reverts to water and salt.

Rarely are countries aligned toward this critically important HOCL opportunity … because HOCL is better than chemical cleaning, the HOCL industry is severely handicapped by regulations requiring each HOCL manufacturer to state their individual claims for their own label.  The unfortunate outcome is that EPA and FDA have allowed claims for chemical companies and denied the exact same claims for HOCL having the same pH and FAC (Free Available Chlorine).

Critically Important:

HOCL has been pronounced by the Center of Disease Control as 100x more powerful than any other disinfectant known to mankind.  Approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), AQUAOX’s solutions, within seconds, eliminate all known bacteria, viruses and fungi … and (HAI) Super Bugs which are documented as killing millions of Americans in hospitals.

Common Sense:

We offer to your question our humble opinion.

50ppm for surface disinfecting should be sufficient, provided that the surface has been thoroughly pre-cleaned, leaving no organic matter to interfere with the HOCL.  GLP (Good Laboratory Practices) efficacy data shows no difference in kill times and kill claims, whether using a 500ppm or a 10ppm HOCL, as long as the surfaces meet clean conditions requirements.  However, in the presence of organics, HOCL efficacy is compromised, as HOCL is consumed (dissipated) while overcoming the organic load.  Apparently anticipating sloppy cleaning or no cleaning, EPA tests HOCL disinfectants under dirty conditions (noting that disinfecting claims hold up only if the FAC is above 200ppm.

When spraying HOCL in the air, UV-light and micro-organisms consume (HOCL) FAC.  Although 50ppm will oxidize airborne microbes, we have measured a quick drop in FAC when HOCL is aerosolized.  For this reason, 50ppm may be insufficient and is not recommended.

In an acute healthcare facility for the last 6 years, Aquaox has been spraying 525ppm HOCL in OR, ER and ICU … and using 275ppm HOCL in all other areas.  Periodically, we take ATP tests as well as culture tests to determine if bacteria remains on surfaces.  Although not all ATP tests have been satisfactory (directly due to sloppy or no cleaning), the culture tests show no alarming levels of bacteria or no bacteria at all … thus validating that disinfecting by means of (electrostatic) spraying has been effective.

Therefore, the cleaning protocol that we propose is similar to what Aquaox has been doing in hospitals, with emphasis on cleaning.

(Yes, you correctly read this statement … ‘cleaning’ is the removal of debris and dirt.)

Just as we are advised to wash hands with soap and water for 20 sec., staff must clean surfaces more frequently and more thoroughly.

After surfaces are thoroughly cleaned, the second part of the protocol, disinfecting, is simply applied by spraying AX-275 and let air-dry.


If we disinfect without cleaning, chemical residue gets layered on the top of surfaces, hiding a biofilm full of micro-organisms that are being fed and protected … and leaving ineffective chemicals or electrolyzed water disinfectant.  Without leaving residue, Aquaox works better by removing the layers of residue and biofilm.

  • Daily after hours, our protocol is … wipe all high-touch surfaces with wetted microfiber cloth using an alkaline cleaner (such as AX-112), followed by spraying AX-275 and let air-dry.
  • Between patients, our protocol is … (electrostatically) spray the patient room with AX-275 and let-air dry. After spraying high touch surfaces with AX-275, wipe dry the patient chair and make sure the floor is not wet (to avoid slip/fall accidents).  With a re-usable microfiber mop, apply AX-275 to floors.  And, just before entering the patient room, spray your own gown…clothing…shoes.

You can do quite a bit better by substituting AX-275 for 50ppm, then aerosolize (spray) HOCL to eliminate odors and give a clean/crisp scent to your dental practice.

Finally, Aquaox recognizes the importance of high quality microfiber cloth/mops. All buyers of Aquaox Disinfectant AX-275, etc. earn a 15% discount from Greenspeed microfiber products. (

I hope this ‘White Paper’ helps you stay safe, as being a dentist suddenly became a dangerous profession

+1. 800.790.7520 /

Hypochlorous Acid in the Fight Against COVID-19

April 10, 2020

Alan G. Kabat, OD, FAAO

As news of COVID-19, the worldwide pandemic associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2) continues to dominate the headlines well into April of 2020, eye care providers have witnessed a tremendous alteration of their practices and lifestyles. Upon recommendations from both the American Academy of Ophthalmology and the American Optometric Association, ophthalmologists and optometrists have been advised to restrict their care to urgent and emergent cases only. This has resulted in many eye care practices across the country closing entirely, not only because of fear of the virus, but because of difficulties in obtaining personal protective equipment (PPE) and lacking appropriate protocols for patient flow and disinfection. Protection against this unforgiving virus has become a paramount concern for healthcare providers and patients alike.

At present, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have made the following recommendations for all individuals to slow/stop the spread of COVID-19: 1

  1. Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds. If soap and water are not readily available, use a use a hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol. Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands.
  2. Stay home as much as possible. Practice social distancing by keeping at least six feet (2 meters) between yourself and other people.
  3. Cover your mouth and nose with a cloth face cover when around others, and especially if you go out in public.
  4. If you do not have a face covering, remember to always cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or sneeze, or use the inside of your elbow.
  5. Clean and disinfect frequently touched surfaces daily. This includes tables, doorknobs, light switches, countertops, handles, desks, phones, keyboards, toilets, faucets, and sinks.

As a disinfectant, the CDC recommends dilute household bleach solution (5 tablespoons per gallon of water) or solutions containing at least 70% alcohol. The agency has also endorsed a litany of other common Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered household disinfectants which, although not formally tested against the SARS CoV-2 pathogen, have shown efficacy against harder to kill viruses (e.g. Norovirus and Hepatitis A).1,2 If one reviews the published list, he may recognize several active ingredients that have broad antiseptic properties, including hydrogen peroxide, quaternary ammonium and thymol in addition to many alcohol and bleach derivatives. But of particular interest, especially to eye care providers, is the inclusion of hypochlorous acid.

Most of us will recognize hypochlorous acid (chemical formula: HOCl) as a now widely-utilized agent for the management of blepharitis in the United States. First introduced for ophthalmic use in 2014, HOCl is a natural antibacterial agent that is produced during the human immune response as white blood cells target pathogens within the body.3,4 This simple chemical compound has a broad spectrum of activity and exhibits rapid kill kinetics against a wide range of bacterial and viral organisms.5 Despite their efficacy however, ophthalmic formulations of HOCl are safe and extremely well-tolerated by patients.

Some of the earliest information regarding HOCl being used to contain the spread of COVID-19 came in the form of reports from South Korea. On March 3, 2020, a story by CNN about workers at drive-through corona testing stations reported that “When their shifts ends, they step fully clothed into a small portable booth called the ‘Clean Zone,’ in which they are showered in hypochlorous acid disinfectant.”6

In reviewing the EPA’s listing,2 HOCl appears a total of six times in unique products; these include such names as Cousteau (Reckitt Benckiser; Parsippany, NJ), Excelyte VET (Paradigm Convergence Technologies; Little River, SC), Danolyte (Danolyte Global; Overland Park, KS) and Cleansmart (Simple Science Limited; Edina, MN). The amount of HOCl in each of these products varies, with some as high as 500 parts per million (0.05%), but both Cousteau and Cleansmart weigh in at 0.017%. If we compare this concentration with that of known ophthalmic products containing HOCl, HypoChlor (OCuSOFT; Rosenberg, TX) meets and exceeds this percentage in that it contains 0.02% HOCl.

To be clear, at this date, none of the commercially available hypochlorous acid eyelid formulations have been specifically tested for efficacy against SARS CoV-2, either in vitro or in vivo. Nonetheless, as doctors and patients alike look for alternative disinfection solutions that are safe and well-tolerated on human skin – including the face and skin around the eyes – this information is very compelling. Gloves and masks provide excellent barriers to COVID-19 spread, but contamination remains an issue when removing these items. Moreover, the CDC has warned individuals that touching the nose, mouth or eyes increases the risk of potential infection. Since products like HypoChlor are readily available and easily applied to the face via a convenient spray bottle, this provides great peace of mind for those of us who still need to venture out into the community during this challenging time. Admittedly, due to the overwhelming evidence, this author has been regularly using HypoChlor on both his face and precious N95 masks following trips to the supermarket or other vital destinations where the potential for contamination exists.

Until we have effectively “flattened the curve” and social distancing can be relaxed, we must remain diligent in the fight against this unparalleled pandemic. Sometimes, in order to do that, we need to be creative. It is nice to know that a simple product like HypoChlor, which many of us employ routinely for blepharitis, may have additional utility against this potentially deadly disease.

Dr. Kabat is a Professor of Optometry at Salus University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He is a member of OCuSOFT’s Optometric Scientific Advisory Board.

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) – Prevention & treatment. Updated April 4, 2020. Available at: ncov/prevent-getting-sick/prevention.html. Accessed April 7, 2020.
  2. United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). List N: Disinfectants for use against SARS-Cov-2. Updated April 2, 2020.  Available at: Accessed April 7, 2020.
  3. Stroman DW, Mintun K, Epstein AB, et al. Reduction in bacterial load using hypochlorous acid hygiene solution on ocular skin. Clin Ophthalmol. 2017;11:707-714.
  4. Hurst JK. What really happens in the neutrophil phagosome? Free Radic Biol Med. 2012;53:508–520.
  5. Wang L, Bassiri M, Najafi R, et al. Hypochlorous acid as a potential wound care agent: part I. Stabilized hypochlorous acid: a component of the inorganic armamentarium of innate immunity. J Burns Wounds. 2007;6:e5.
  6. Watson I, Jeong S. CNN. South Korea pioneers coronavirus drive-through testing station. CNN. Updated March 3, 2020. Available at: Accessed April 8, 2020.


February 13, 2019

THEY SAID IT … we report it … and you evaluate the results and source credibility.  [The full text of research studies/papers articles are made part of this HOT TOPICS and are found at the end.]

WHERE ARE WE?  AQUAOX generators produce/supply hypochlorous acid that is electrostatically sprayed in hospitals to SAFELY assure efficacy of HOCL in killing pathogens and dispels any concern that HOCL could be related to allergenic/asthmatic reactions.  The modern-day protocol of the AQUAOX Infection Control System lowers worker injuries/claims and elevates staff productivity to improve (hospital) patient satisfaction off the charts.

While not additionally claimed (on Aquaox’s AX-525 containers), C.diff is indisputably managed as evidenced by anecdotal success from thousands of in-hospital applications.  So, while Aquaox is nicely managing reality . . .


Where does your organization sit when it comes to ‘healthy’ and proactive reduction of chemical use?

Here comes a little nudge from the good fairy sitting on your shoulder:  Simply follow the MORAL IMPERATIVE and, where applicable, the LEGAL OBLIGATION that EVERY facility gets their job done effectively while providing the safest working conditions possible.

OSHA’s guiding principle – “Don’t use hazardous chemicals if a less hazardous one is available.”  In other words, if there is a safer way to perform a job, choose the safer way.

The cost of killing MRSA, E.coli and other bacteria and viruses with chemicals also comes at great cost and often requires undesirable chemicals, chlorine or bleach – all bad.  Besides, the long contact time required of chemicals evaporates (toxic) fumes into the air we breathe … in addition to leaving on surfaces residue that can irritate skin, eyes and respiratory.

In hospital applications, think first of long-term health consequences to staff and patients due to chemical absorption into the body.  And always keep sight of the higher hard and soft costs of using chemicals, as opposed to doing the right thing with a more-potent, safe HOCL solution dispensed by electrostatic sprayer and ultra-high quality microfiber cloths and mopheads.


From Green Seal Study.pdf

3.4 Cleaner Use

The most important impacts associated with the use of cleaners include health and safety concerns for the workers and building occupants and environmental releases of the cleaners. In addition to reduction of environmental impacts though product selections, purchasers and users of cleaning chemicals should consider dispensing systems that limit worker exposure to cleaning concentrates. These are described in Section 2.4. This section describes relevant health, safety, and environmental impacts and then discusses various ingredients and their impacts.

Appendix B contains health and environmental data by ingredient.

3.4.1 Health and Safety

Worker Exposure to Cleaning Chemicals. Workers are commonly exposed to cleaning chemicals through their skin and their lungs, although oral exposure is also possible. In their review of janitorial injuries in the state of Washington, Barron and Sutherland (1999) reported that 76% of janitorial injuries from chemical exposure involve skin and eye irritation or burns and 12% involve worker inhalation of chemical fumes. Barron et al. (1999) estimates that medical expenses and lost time for chemical injuries to janitors in the United States cost approximately $75 million annually. Therefore, Green Seal wants to encourage the selection of products that are not toxic, corrosive, skin or eye irritants, or sensitizers.

Toxics. Although cleaning chemicals are not generally the most significant source of VOCs in an indoor environment, they are a significant source of VOCs to the workers who use them. This makes the inhalation toxicity of volatile cleaning chemicals an important consideration. Due to concern over worker exposure to some volatile compounds, OSHA has set permissible exposure limits (PELs) and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has set threshold limit values for a number of solvents. Cleaning chemicals can also be absorbed through the skin, particularly some glycol ethers. Dermal toxicity of cleaning chemicals is also an important consideration. The potential for skin absorption can be greatly reduced by wearing gloves, as manufacturers generally recommend. The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) defines a toxic material as (16 CFR Part 1500.3)

LD50 < 5 g/kg (oral)

LC50 < 20,000 ppm (inhalation)

LD50 < 2 g/kg (skin)

It is important to note that health effects occur at levels below those defined as toxic.

Corrosivity and Skin and Eye Irritation. A chemical with a pH outside the neutral range may cause injury to the skin and eyes. Although products with a pH greater than 11 or less than 2.5 pose the greatest risk for skin and eye injury (Grant 1974), pH is not the only measure of a chemical’s potential for skin and eye injury.

Sensitizers. A sensitizer is a chemical that causes a substantial proportion of exposed people or animals to develop an allergic reaction in normal tissue after repeated exposure to the chemical. Sensitizers should be reported on MSDSs. A person can become sensitized to a cleaning chemical by inhaling it or from dermal exposure. Some of the responses to sensitizers include contact dermatitis and inflammation of the mucus membranes. According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, occupational skin diseases (mostly in the form of contact dermatitis) are the second most common type of occupational disease, accounting for 14% of all occupational diseases (BLS 1999b).

Flammability. The flammability of some solvents and propellants is an important safety issue. Flammable and combustible substances must be handled with extreme caution. The CPSC defines a flammable substance as one with a flashpoint between 20 and 100 °F and a combustible substance as one with a flashpoint between 100 and 150 °F (16 CFR Part 1500.3(c)(6)). OSHA defines several classes of combustible liquids. The Department of Transportation allows liquids to be tested to determine if the liquid can sustain a flame instead of relying on flashpoint. It is important to consider the combustibility of a product as a whole. For example, a dilute solution of ethanol in water would not be flammable or combustible. However, a cleaner containing high concentrations of pine oil, d-limonene, or other solvents could easily be flammable or combustible.

Indoor Air Quality. Americans on average spend 90% of their time indoors; therefore, good indoor air quality is essential to the health of building occupants (Berry 1994). Common complaints resulting from poor indoor air quality include headache, fatigue, and sluggishness and irritation of the skin, eyes, nose, throat, and lungs (Berry 1994; Bardana and Montanaro 1997).

In general, the main causes of poor indoor air quality are poor ventilation, pollutants emitted outside, biological contamination due to poor moisture control, building materials, inadequate cleaning, and tobacco smoke (Berry 1994; Godish 1995; Bardana and Montanaro 1997).

Cleaning and the use of cleaners promote good indoor air quality by minimizing the amount of dust, dirt, and odors that can cause a negative response in building occupants. Research Triangle Institute (RTI) (1994) assessed the effects of cleaning of indoor air quality and found that improved cleaning methods reduce the levels of biological, chemical, and particulate pollutants in the indoor environment. Additionally, cleaning removes sources of food for microorganisms and pests such as cockroaches and rodents. This reduces the potential for these organisms to cause poor indoor air quality.

On the other hand, many cleaners contain volatile ingredients, which evaporate during their use, and these VOCs cause sensory and central nervous system irritation. RTI (1994) found that cleaning chemicals containing lower concentrations of VOCs reduce the building levels of VOCs. Individuals exposed to 5 to 25 mg/m3 of a mixture of VOCs report an adverse response (Berry 1994; Kjaergaard 1991). In buildings, the major sources of VOCs include tobacco smoke, pesticides, and building materials such as insulation, wall and floor coverings, adhesives, and paint. Although cleaning chemicals are cited as a less significant source of VOCs, the use of VOCs in cleaners should be kept to a minimum to help maintain good indoor air quality.

LIFE magazine reveals that the public is mostly unaware that HOCl actually cleans their water.

Chlorine is currently employed by over 98 percent of all U.S. water utilities that disinfect drinking water. It has proved to be a powerful barrier in restricting pathogens from reaching your faucet and making you ill.

Chlorine effectively kills a large variety of microbial waterborne pathogens, including those that can cause typhoid fever, dysentery, cholera and Legionnaires’ disease. Chlorine is widely credited with virtually eliminating outbreaks of waterborne disease in the United States and other developed countries. And Life magazine recently cited the filtration of drinking water and use of chlorine as “probably the most significant public health advance of the millennium.”

Sonoma Pharmaceuticals Announces Publication of Consensus Report Describing Celacyn’s (Hypochlorous Acid) Impact on Post-Procedure Treatment and Scar Prevention … June 28, 2017 04:05 ET Source: Sonoma Pharmaceuticals, Inc.  For the abstract of this report:

I am excited about the potential of HOCl to efficaciously and safely treat wounds and scars.

This consensus concluded that hypochlorous acid has been shown to be an efficacious and safe therapy in pre- and post-procedure management, hypertrophic and keloid scar prevention and treatment. Through its potent broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and anti-biofilm effects, HOCl solution has been associated with a lower risk of wound infection than other available treatments including Hibiclens, betadine and povidone-iodine. It increases oxygenation at wound sites, which may improve healing time. The safety of HOCl solution has demonstrated to be comparable to that of standard local antiseptics.

Evaluation of sprayed hypochlorous acid solutions for their virucidal activity against avian influenza virus through in vitroexperiments

The best way to combat with the [avian influenza (AI)] plague is to enhance biosecurity

Inactivation of AIV on the surfaces of objects or in the air at poultry farms would significantly reduce and or limit the chance for its circulation and outbreaks. Discovery of an effective aerosol disinfectant with applicability at farms that raise animals is a very important need to reduce bioaerosol.

Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) solution is one of the chlorine byproducts obtained by dissolving chlorine in water. The virucidal ability of solutions containing a high amount of HOCl is better than those containing HCl, because the virucidal ability of HOCl is 120 times higher than that of HCl. Furthermore, the level of free available chlorine in chlorine-based compounds (often called HOCl) is highest in pH 5 solutions.

DISCUSSION:  Hypochlorites are powerful oxidizing agents with bactericidal, fungicidal and sporicidal activity, and hypochlorous acid is their active moiety. There is less information available concerning the mechanism of action of hypochlorous acid solution, but in general, it affects structural proteins, such as the capsid or surface compounds, lipid envelop (if present) and nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) of viruses.

Hypochlorous acid solution is one of the chlorine compounds with good disinfection ability. In the present study, the aqueous phase of the original solution containing a free available chlorine concentration of 50 ppm could reduce the titer of an ordinary AIV (H7N1) from 107.7 TCID50/ml to lower than the detectable limit within 5 sec., which is faster than in previous reports, and its harvested solution after spraying from a distance of 1 cm had the same ability, but it lost its efficacy after spraying from a distance of 30 cm.

Installation and application of an appropriate spray system at the entrance (like an airlock entrance) and inside of animal farms at an appropriate distance and use of an ideal disinfectant, such as slightly acidic hypochlorous water, with a proper concentration would potentially reduce the chance of transmission of infections and diseases outbreaks.

Expert Recommendations for the Use of Hypochlorous Solution: Science and Clinical Application.

More advanced hypochlorous acid (HOCl) solutions, based on electrochemistry, have emerged as safe and viable wound-cleansing agents and infection treatment adjunct therapies.

Based on in vitro studies, the antimicrobial activity of HOCl appears to be comparable to other antiseptics but without cytotoxicity; there is more clinical evidence about its safety and effectiveness.

With regard to the resolution of infection and improvement in wound healing by adjunct HOCl use, strong evidence was found for use in diabetic foot wounds; moderate evidence for use in septic surgical wounds; low evidence for venous leg ulcers, wounds of mixed etiology, or chronic wounds; and no evidence for burn wounds.

The panel recommended HOCl should be used in addition to tissue management, infection, moisture imbalance, edge of the wound (the TIME algorithm) and aggressive debridement.

The panel also recommended intralesional use of HOCl or other methods that ensure the wound is covered with the solution for 15 minutes after debridement.

Effects of a low concentration hypochlorous Acid nasal irrigation solution on bacteria, fungi, and virus

CONCLUSIONS:  A low concentration HOCl solution can be used as an effective nasal irrigation solution

Direct Electric Current Treatment under Physiologic Saline Conditions Kills Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilms via Electrolytic Generation of Hypochlorous Acid

CONCLUSIONS:  Our results are consistent with electrolytic generation of hypochlorous acid, a potent disinfectant, at the anode leading to biofilm killing.


Use of HOCl by the Human Body…. THE HUMAN BODY CONNECTION

February 11, 2019

Born to Fight Infection
Micro-organisms are found in the air we breathe and on the food we eat. As soon as a baby is born, innate defense mechanisms immediately protect the body and prevent infection by invading pathogens, microorganisms that are capable of causing diseases. The first line of defense is an external mechanical resistance that blocks entry into the human body. The skin, acts as a wall that keeps pathogens out of the body.  This nearly impermeable barrier is reinforced with chemical weapons such as lysozyme in the mouth which destroys bacterial cell walls and the acid pH of the stomach which inhibits microbial growth. Internal surfaces of the body secrete a sticky substance called mucus, which lines the surfaces of the respiratory, digestive, excretory and reproductive systems. This barrier coats and traps invading pathogens, which can then be can be swept away by cilia or destroyed by stomach acid.

Protection Against Unwanted Invaders
The second line of defense is the inflammatory response. White blood cells such as neutrophils respond to any tissue invasion by migrating to the site of infection.  Neutrophils, seek out pathogens such as bacteria or viruses, surround and destroy them using hypochlorous acid (HOCl). This process is known as phagocytosis (1). In the 1880s, the Russian microbiologist Metchnikoff  first reported the process of Phagocytosis. Metchnikoff observed that mobile white blood cells responded to the site of an infection and engulfed and destroyed the invading bacteria (2). The Nobel Prize winning microbiologist Metchnikoff called these hunting cells phagocytes, Greek for “eating cells,” and published his findings in 1883. The most common type of Phagocyte is the neutrophil, with 50 to 70 percent of the White Blood Cells in the body consist of neutrophils. The human body senses damage to tissue and, as part of the inflammation response sends out biochemical messengers called histamines in response to microbial invasion. These messengers act as warning signals to the body, increasing blood flow at the site of infection, causing the capillaries to become porous allowing neutrophil white blood cells to leave the capillaries and migrate to the site of infection (1).

Seeking Out and Engaging the Enemy
The neutrophils hunt down the ‘bad guys’ following the chemical trails left by invading micro-organisms through the process of chemotaxis. Once the neutrophils have  identified their target they bind to outer surfaces and devour them. The process of Phagocytosis

Finishing off the Bad Guy
Once engulfed inside the neutrophil cell the pathogen is encapsulated by a phagosome. The phagosome generates HOCL as the final step of the Oxidative Burst pathway, the centerpiece of the phagocytic killing mechanism. Large quantities of HOCl are released into the phagocytic vesicle to destroy the invading pathogen HOCl .

Chemistry of Neutrophil HOCL Production
During the oxidative burst pathway, neutrophils utilize the NADP oxidase enzyme complex which catalyzes the conversion of oxygen into superoxide anion (O2-). Superoxide dismutase then converts superoxide and water dismutase to form hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl (OH) radicals. In the case of neutrophils the hydrogen peroxide then combines with chloride (Cl2-) ions by the action of the enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) to form hypochlorous acid (HOCL) (4).

The Beauty of HOCL
Simply take salt, water, and electricity and make HOCL. HOCL is produced when required to kill harmful microorganisms at the same concentration and at the same pH range as HOCl produced by the human body. HOCL is made on site on demand and replaces harmful and dangerous chemical. HOCl is many times more effective at killing harmful pathogens than hypochlorite, the major constituent of bleach (5). The  electrochemical process generates HOCl at near neutral pH using patented technology which generates the solution at the optimum pH to generate the maximum levels of hypochlorous acid.

Historical Use of Chlorine and HOCl
The laws of electrolysis were discovered by the English chemist Michael Faraday in 1832. Electrolysis is the passing of an electrical current through a salt electrolyte, which then breaks up into a positive and negatively charged solution (6). By the latter part of the 19th century chlorine and hypochlorite were being produced by the electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride solutions.

The antimicrobial activity of HOCl was demonstrated over 120 years ago by Koch (7), it has found application in the treatment of recreational and industrial water systems, sanitary applications and surface disinfection in the food industry and the disposal of hospital waste (8,9) Granum & Magnussen, 1987; Tsai & Lin, 1999). Heuter first used HOCl as a wound disinfectant in 1831 and Semmelweis utilised its bactericidal properties as a hand wash in 1847, this form of uncombined chlorine has been widely used for the control of microbial activity.

HOCl First World War Life Saver
During The First World War many allied soldiers lives were saved by a wound treatment process developed by Alexis Carrel, a Nobel Prize winning French surgeon and Drysdale Dakin a British biochemist. The treatment involved a combination of removal of dead cells known as debridement, using specialized surgical technique and continuous irrigation with HOCl antiseptic fluid (10). As HOCl is not stable, the fluid was produced by adding boric acid to hypochlorite and delivered using a complex system of rubber tubing delivered HOCl known as Dakin solution to nearly every inner surface of the wound. Patients who received the Carrel treatment typically recovered in less than half the time of patients treated by other methods and was widely adopted the middle of 1915, saving lives and reduced the suffering of millions of allied soldiers.

Mimicking the Human Body
Simple elements salt and water generates HOCl, a natural biocide made by the human body’s white blood cells to fight infection.

1. Mark B. Hampton, Anthony J. Kettle, and Christine C. Winterbourn . Inside the
Neutrophil Phagosome: Oxidants, Myeloperoxidase, and Bacterial Killing. Blood,
Vol. 92 No. 9 (November 1), 1998: pp. 3007-3017
2. Metchnikoff E: Immunity in Infective Diseases. New York, NY, Johnson Reprint
Corp , 1968
3. Klebanoff SJ: Myeloperoxidase-halide-hydrogen peroxide antibacterial system.
Bacteriol. 95:2131, 1968
4. Mark B. Hampton, Anthony J. Kettle, and Christine C. Winterbourn. Involvement
of Superoxide and Myeloperoxidase in Oxygen Dependant Killing og
Staphylococcus aureus by Neutriphils. Infection an dImmunity, Sept 1996, pp.
5. Morris J.C. (1966) Future of chlorination. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 58: 1475-
6. Kraft A., Stadelmann M., Blaschke M., Kreysig D., Sandt B., Schroder F. and
Rennau J. (1999) Electrochemical water disinfection Part I: Hypochlorite
production from very dilute chloride solutions J. Appl. Electrochemistry. 29: 861-
7. Wallhauber K.H. (1988) Praxis der Sterilisation-Disinfektion-Konservierung-
Keimidentifizierung-Betriebshygiene. Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart.
8. Granum P.E. and Magnussen J. (1987) The effect of pH on hypochlorite as
disinfectant, Int. J. Food Micro. 4: 183-186
9. Tsai C.T. and Lin S.T. (1999) Disinfection of hospital waste sludge using
hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide. J. Appl. Microbiol. 86: 827-833
10. Carrel, H. D. Dakin, Daufresne, Dehelly, Dumas:
Traitement de l’infection des plaies. Bulletin de l’Académie de médecin, Paris,
1915, 3rd series;74:361-368.
11. Gordon and Bubnis. Products of Salt Brine Electrolysis December (1999).

Electrolyzed Water

Electrolyzed Water is our business!