Use of HOCl by the Human Body…. THE HUMAN BODY CONNECTION

Born to Fight Infection
Micro-organisms are found in the air we breathe and on the food we eat. As soon as a baby is born, innate defense mechanisms immediately protect the body and prevent infection by invading pathogens, microorganisms that are capable of causing diseases. The first line of defense is an external mechanical resistance that blocks entry into the human body. The skin, acts as a wall that keeps pathogens out of the body.  This nearly impermeable barrier is reinforced with chemical weapons such as lysozyme in the mouth which destroys bacterial cell walls and the acid pH of the stomach which inhibits microbial growth. Internal surfaces of the body secrete a sticky substance called mucus, which lines the surfaces of the respiratory, digestive, excretory and reproductive systems. This barrier coats and traps invading pathogens, which can then be can be swept away by cilia or destroyed by stomach acid.

Protection Against Unwanted Invaders
The second line of defense is the inflammatory response. White blood cells such as neutrophils respond to any tissue invasion by migrating to the site of infection.  Neutrophils, seek out pathogens such as bacteria or viruses, surround and destroy them using hypochlorous acid (HOCl). This process is known as phagocytosis (1). In the 1880s, the Russian microbiologist Metchnikoff  first reported the process of Phagocytosis. Metchnikoff observed that mobile white blood cells responded to the site of an infection and engulfed and destroyed the invading bacteria (2). The Nobel Prize winning microbiologist Metchnikoff called these hunting cells phagocytes, Greek for “eating cells,” and published his findings in 1883. The most common type of Phagocyte is the neutrophil, with 50 to 70 percent of the White Blood Cells in the body consist of neutrophils. The human body senses damage to tissue and, as part of the inflammation response sends out biochemical messengers called histamines in response to microbial invasion. These messengers act as warning signals to the body, increasing blood flow at the site of infection, causing the capillaries to become porous allowing neutrophil white blood cells to leave the capillaries and migrate to the site of infection (1).

Seeking Out and Engaging the Enemy
The neutrophils hunt down the ‘bad guys’ following the chemical trails left by invading micro-organisms through the process of chemotaxis. Once the neutrophils have  identified their target they bind to outer surfaces and devour them. The process of Phagocytosis

Finishing off the Bad Guy
Once engulfed inside the neutrophil cell the pathogen is encapsulated by a phagosome. The phagosome generates HOCL as the final step of the Oxidative Burst pathway, the centerpiece of the phagocytic killing mechanism. Large quantities of HOCl are released into the phagocytic vesicle to destroy the invading pathogen HOCl .

Chemistry of Neutrophil HOCL Production
During the oxidative burst pathway, neutrophils utilize the NADP oxidase enzyme complex which catalyzes the conversion of oxygen into superoxide anion (O2-). Superoxide dismutase then converts superoxide and water dismutase to form hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl (OH) radicals. In the case of neutrophils the hydrogen peroxide then combines with chloride (Cl2-) ions by the action of the enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) to form hypochlorous acid (HOCL) (4).

The Beauty of HOCL
Simply take salt, water, and electricity and make HOCL. HOCL is produced when required to kill harmful microorganisms at the same concentration and at the same pH range as HOCl produced by the human body. HOCL is made on site on demand and replaces harmful and dangerous chemical. HOCl is many times more effective at killing harmful pathogens than hypochlorite, the major constituent of bleach (5). The  electrochemical process generates HOCl at near neutral pH using patented technology which generates the solution at the optimum pH to generate the maximum levels of hypochlorous acid.

Historical Use of Chlorine and HOCl
The laws of electrolysis were discovered by the English chemist Michael Faraday in 1832. Electrolysis is the passing of an electrical current through a salt electrolyte, which then breaks up into a positive and negatively charged solution (6). By the latter part of the 19th century chlorine and hypochlorite were being produced by the electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride solutions.

The antimicrobial activity of HOCl was demonstrated over 120 years ago by Koch (7), it has found application in the treatment of recreational and industrial water systems, sanitary applications and surface disinfection in the food industry and the disposal of hospital waste (8,9) Granum & Magnussen, 1987; Tsai & Lin, 1999). Heuter first used HOCl as a wound disinfectant in 1831 and Semmelweis utilised its bactericidal properties as a hand wash in 1847, this form of uncombined chlorine has been widely used for the control of microbial activity.

HOCl First World War Life Saver
During The First World War many allied soldiers lives were saved by a wound treatment process developed by Alexis Carrel, a Nobel Prize winning French surgeon and Drysdale Dakin a British biochemist. The treatment involved a combination of removal of dead cells known as debridement, using specialized surgical technique and continuous irrigation with HOCl antiseptic fluid (10). As HOCl is not stable, the fluid was produced by adding boric acid to hypochlorite and delivered using a complex system of rubber tubing delivered HOCl known as Dakin solution to nearly every inner surface of the wound. Patients who received the Carrel treatment typically recovered in less than half the time of patients treated by other methods and was widely adopted the middle of 1915, saving lives and reduced the suffering of millions of allied soldiers.

Mimicking the Human Body
Simple elements salt and water generates HOCl, a natural biocide made by the human body’s white blood cells to fight infection.

1. Mark B. Hampton, Anthony J. Kettle, and Christine C. Winterbourn . Inside the
Neutrophil Phagosome: Oxidants, Myeloperoxidase, and Bacterial Killing. Blood,
Vol. 92 No. 9 (November 1), 1998: pp. 3007-3017
2. Metchnikoff E: Immunity in Infective Diseases. New York, NY, Johnson Reprint
Corp , 1968
3. Klebanoff SJ: Myeloperoxidase-halide-hydrogen peroxide antibacterial system.
Bacteriol. 95:2131, 1968
4. Mark B. Hampton, Anthony J. Kettle, and Christine C. Winterbourn. Involvement
of Superoxide and Myeloperoxidase in Oxygen Dependant Killing og
Staphylococcus aureus by Neutriphils. Infection an dImmunity, Sept 1996, pp.
5. Morris J.C. (1966) Future of chlorination. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 58: 1475-
6. Kraft A., Stadelmann M., Blaschke M., Kreysig D., Sandt B., Schroder F. and
Rennau J. (1999) Electrochemical water disinfection Part I: Hypochlorite
production from very dilute chloride solutions J. Appl. Electrochemistry. 29: 861-
7. Wallhauber K.H. (1988) Praxis der Sterilisation-Disinfektion-Konservierung-
Keimidentifizierung-Betriebshygiene. Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart.
8. Granum P.E. and Magnussen J. (1987) The effect of pH on hypochlorite as
disinfectant, Int. J. Food Micro. 4: 183-186
9. Tsai C.T. and Lin S.T. (1999) Disinfection of hospital waste sludge using
hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide. J. Appl. Microbiol. 86: 827-833
10. Carrel, H. D. Dakin, Daufresne, Dehelly, Dumas:
Traitement de l’infection des plaies. Bulletin de l’Académie de médecin, Paris,
1915, 3rd series;74:361-368.
11. Gordon and Bubnis. Products of Salt Brine Electrolysis December (1999).

3 Responses to “Use of HOCl by the Human Body…. THE HUMAN BODY CONNECTION”

  1. Erven TaLLMAN Says:


  2. Erven Tallman Says:


  3. Erv Tallman Says:


    On Mon, Feb 11, 2019 at 1:28 PM Electrolyzed Water wrote:

    > aquaox posted: “Born to Fight Infection Micro-organisms are found in the > air we breathe and on the food we eat. As soon as a baby is born, > innate defense mechanisms immediately protect the body and prevent > infection by invading pathogens, microorganisms that are capable ” >

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